1. Although—means “in spite of the fact that”:
- Although it was raining, I ran home.
- She showed up, although she felt sick.
- Although my mom told me to come home early, I stayed out late.
2. After—indicates “subsequently to the time when”:
- Please text me after you arrive at the shopping mall.
- We were forced to stop watching TV after the electricity went out.
- I always tell my daughter that she can have dessert after she eats her dinner.
3. Before—indicates “earlier than the time that”:
- He had written a living will before he died.
- Before he contacted me, I was going to call him.
- I need to finish the dishes before my wife gets home.
4. Because—means “for the reason that”:
- Because he was smart and worked hard, he was able to make a lot of money.
- They stopped building the house because it was pouring.
- I love dogs because they are so cute.
5. How—means “the way in which”:
- I wonder how you did it.
- He explained how he completed it in a few days.
- Can you show me how you fixed the computer?
6. If—means “in the event that”:
- If it is sunny tomorrow, we can go to the beach.
- If I receive a promotion, you will be the first to know.
- You can watch TV if you finish your homework.
7. Once—indicates “at the moment when”:
- Once you see him, you will recognize him.
- Once the light came on, we all shouted with joy.
- Call me once you start having contractions.
8. Since—means “from the time when”:
- I’ve been a singer since I was young.
- Since he graduated, he has been doing nothing.
- This building has been remodeled three times since I lived here.
9. So that—means “in order to”:
- So that she could keep her position, she didn’t complain at all.
- He finished his work as fast as possible so that he could leave early.
- He worked harder for a raise so he could buy a nice car.
10. Until—means “up to the time that”:
- Don’t go anywhere until I come back.
- She didn’t realize her talent in painting until her teacher mentioned it.
- They won’t allow us to sit until everyone arrives.
11. Unless—means “except, on the condition”:
- You will not pass the exam unless you get a score of 80 or higher.
- I will not tell you anything unless you tell me what you know first.
- Unless you ask her, you will never know.
12. When—means “at that time”:
- When I came in the room, everyone looked at me.
- I woke up when my baby was crying.
- I started looking for a gas station when my gas light went on.
13. While—means “during the time”:
- Someone called you while you were at the meeting.
- We met while we were working at the University.
- My dog started barking while I was talking on the phone.
14. Where—indicates “in the place”:
- This is where I came from.
- Please tell me where you are going.
- I need to know where John hid the present.
15. Whether—means “if it is true or not”:
- We will have a picnic whether it rains or not.
- It is time to decide whether we should take action.
- You need to decide whether or not you are hungry.