Subordinating Conjunctions

1. Although—means “in spite of the fact that”:

  • Although it was raining, I ran home.
  • She showed up, although she felt sick.
  • Although my mom told me to come home early, I stayed out late.

2. After—indicates “subsequently to the time when”:

  • Please text me after you arrive at the shopping mall.
  • We were forced to stop watching TV after the electricity went out.
  • I always tell my daughter that she can have dessert after she eats her dinner.

3. Before—indicates “earlier than the time that”:

  • He had written a living will before he died.
  • Before he contacted me, I was going to call him.
  • I need to finish the dishes before my wife gets home.

4. Because—means “for the reason that”:

  • Because he was smart and worked hard, he was able to make a lot of money.
  • They stopped building the house because it was pouring.
  • I love dogs because they are so cute.

5. How—means “the way in which”:

  • I wonder how you did it.
  • He explained how he completed it in a few days.
  • Can you show me how you fixed the computer?

6. If—means “in the event that”:

  • If it is sunny tomorrow, we can go to the beach.
  • If I receive a promotion, you will be the first to know.
  • You can watch TV if you finish your homework.

7. Once—indicates “at the moment when”:

  • Once you see him, you will recognize him.
  • Once the light came on, we all shouted with joy.
  • Call me once you start having contractions.

8. Since—means “from the time when”:

  • I’ve been a singer since I was young.
  • Since he graduated, he has been doing nothing.
  • This building has been remodeled three times since I lived here.

9. So that—means “in order to”:

  • So that she could keep her position, she didn’t complain at all.
  • He finished his work as fast as possible so that he could leave early.
  • He worked harder for a raise so he could buy a nice car.

10. Until—means “up to the time that”:

  • Don’t go anywhere until I come back.
  • She didn’t realize her talent in painting until her teacher mentioned it.
  • They won’t allow us to sit until everyone arrives.

11. Unless—means “except, on the condition”:

  • You will not pass the exam unless you get a score of 80 or higher.
  • I will not tell you anything unless you tell me what you know first.
  • Unless you ask her, you will never know.

12. When—means “at that time”:

  • When I came in the room, everyone looked at me.
  • I woke up when my baby was crying.
  • I started looking for a gas station when my gas light went on.

13. While—means “during the time”:

  • Someone called you while you were at the meeting.
  • We met while we were working at the University.
  • My dog started barking while I was talking on the phone.

14. Where—indicates “in the place”:

  • This is where I came from.
  • Please tell me where you are going.
  • I need to know where John hid the present.

15. Whether—means “if it is true or not”:

  • We will have a picnic whether it rains or not.
  • It is time to decide whether we should take action.
  • You need to decide whether or not you are hungry.